Психолого-правова характеристика грабежу. Legal-psychological description of robbery.

У дисертації встановлено, що грабіж як суспільно небезпечне та протиправне явище має досить давні витоки. В історичних пам’ятках різних епох грабіж тлумачили по-різному залежно від змісту таких однорідних злочинів, як крадіжка й розбій, а також загальніших понять – «татьба», «воровство», «викрадення», «розкрадання». Проаналізовано психологічні особливості суб’єкта та суб’єктивної сторони грабежу, психолого-правові складові його об’єкта й об’єктивної сторони. На підставі узагальнення матеріалів вивчення кримінальних проваджень щодо грабежів складено загальний психологічний портрет грабіжника. Розглянуто юридико-психологічні аспекти розслідування грабежів. Розроблено тактико-психологічну методику розслідування злочинів цієї категорії з розподілом слідчих ситуацій на сприятливі та несприятливі залежно від початкової інформації. Сформульовано психологічні рекомендації щодо проведення окремих слідчих дій, які в процесі розслідування грабежів максимально насичені психологічною інформацією. Доведено доцільність застосування спеціальних психологічних знань під час розслідування зазначеної категорії проваджень. In the dissertation it is established that robbery as a socially dangerous and illegal phenomenon has quite long historical origins. In historical monuments of various eras, robbery was defined and interpreted in different ways, depending on the content of homogeneous crimes such as theft and robbery, and the content of such more general concepts as «tatba», «heft», «abduction». Having become acquainted with the regulation of criminal responsibility for robbery in foreign law, we have found that in most post-Soviet states, as well as in Ukraine, theft, robbery and robbery have independent, separate crimes. The main criterion for distinguishing between theft and robbery is the method of committing a crime (secret and open, respectively), and robbery and robbery is the nature of the violence used. Another is the criminal law approach of countries that are members of the European Union and many foreign countries, where a common understanding of forced assimilation of property that includes both signs of violent robbery and signs of robbery has been adopted. The psychological features of the subject and the subjective side of robbery, as well as certain psychological and legal components of the object and the objective side of the robbery are analyzed. On the basis of the generalization of materials for the study of criminal proceedings against robbery, a general psychological portrait of the robber has been provided. The contingent of robbers is almost entirely male (95,4 %). The highest criminal activity is distinguished by minors (18,7 %) and 18–25-year-olds (51 %) age groups. More than half (72,7 %) of those convicted for robbery had already been prosecuted. The general level of robbers is lower than law-abiding citizens (27 % complete secondary education, 50,3 % of incomplete secondary education), which results in low legal education and insufficient socialization, insufficient development of mental abilities, and, ultimately, difficult financial situation. Most of those convicted for robbery do not have a family (78 %) and a permanent place of work (74,8 %). With the help of studying the results of forensic psychological examination, we found that the vast majority of robbers – mentally entirely full of persons: information about the presence of mental anomalies took place only about 5,4 % of defendants, and in all cases, it was about the boundary states of the psyche. Recognition Persons with limited convictions in convictions are very rare (0,3 %). It has been established that most often get into unpleasant situations and two main types of people become victims of robbery. The first type includes the category of citizens who are not in a position to act effectively. Thus, women, minors, minors, the elderly, people with physical disabilities, and others like that, become victims of robbery. The second type of victim includes people with victimal behavior. As a rule, their unconscious, provocative behavior attracts the attention of robbers to their person, supposedly giving the «idea» of the crime and contributing to the emergence of criminal intentions. Most often, they provoke robbery: a lonely stay in the late time in deserted places, the display of expensive things, a demonstration of solvency, excessive trust in strangers, and being in a state of intoxication. The legal and psychological issues of robbery investigations are considered. The tactical and psychological methodology for investigating crimes of this category with the distribution of investigative situations is favorable and unfavorable depending on the initial source information. The psychological recommendations for carrying out separate investigative actions, which during the investigation of robbery are capable of carrying (representing) the greatest psychological information, are determined. The expediency of using special psychological knowledge during the investigation of the specified category of cases has been proved. В диссертации рассмотрены юридико-психологические аспекты расследования грабежей.
грабіж, особа грабіжника, грабеж, личность грабителя, robbery, person robber