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Title: Юридико-психологічна характеристика зґвалтування. Legal-psychologycal description of raping
metadata.local.udk: 159:343.915
metadata.local.vid: Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня доктора філософії та доктора наук, автореферати дисертацій.
metadata.local.special: 19.00.06 – юридична психологія
Other Titles: Юридико-психологическая характеристика изнасилования
Authors: Шмерецький, Єгор Євгенович
Shmeretskyi, Iehor
Keywords: зґвалтування;психологічна допомога жертвам сексуального насильства;изнасилование;психологическая помощь жертвам сексуального насилия;raping;psychological help to the victims of sexual violence
Issue Date: Mar-2018
Abstract: В роботі доведено, що в історичному розвитку кримінально-правових норм про відповідальність за зґвалтування і насильницькі дії сексуального характеру в Україні слід виділяти три етапи. Визначені типові групи зґвалтувань за їх об’єктивними ознаками та надана характеристика кримінально-психологічних типів ґвалтівників за характером взаємодії зовнішніх і внутрішніх умов. У площині віктимності визначені типові ситуації вчинення зґвалтувань. Психологічна допомога жертвам сексуального насильства повинна надаватися за наступними напрямами: підтримання самооцінки; інформаційна підтримка; мотиваційна підтримка; інструментальна підтримка; емоційна підтримка. В работе аргументировано, что в историческом развитии криминально-правовых норм относительно ответственности за изнасилование и насильственные действия сексуального характера в Украине следует выделять три этапа. В результате проведенного исследования обоснованы типовые группы изнасилований в зависимости от их объективных особенностей и представлена характеристика криминально-психологических типов насильников в зависимости от взаимодействия внешних и внутренних условий. В контексте виктимности определены типовые ситуации совершения изнасилований. Психологическая помощь жертвам сексуального насилия должна оказываться по следующим направлениям: поддержка самооценки, информационная поддержка, мотивационная поддержка, инструментальная поддержка, эмоциональная поддержка. The problem of sexual violence and his consequences exists during all history of humanity, but she became the article of scientific researches only in 70th of ХХ. Partly it is explained by that as a result of action of social norms, taboos, stigme and intimate character of relations between a man and woman facts of such violence not made public, and statistics in relation to them is understated or in general is absent. The work proved that in historical development of criminal-legal norms about responsibility for raping and violent actions of sexual character in Ukraine it follows to distinguish a few stages three steps should be distinguished. It is advisable to distinguish the next most typical groups of raping on their objective signs: sudden assaults on women minor, persons years old; raping as excess of robbery or robbery attack, when criminal intention arises up in the process of commission of crime; raping related to the general pastime; raping perfect as a result of brief contacts between a man and woman, when a suffering side examines such acquaintance as prelude to the protracted relations; raping of women, very young and minor children that are with a criminal in family and domestic relations, and also neighbours or colleagues, is on work. Application of physical violence is the means of overcoming of resistance of suffering person. With the same aim can be applied and especially psychical influence on a victim, as a not degree of announcing of physical efforts, but experiencing of threat of raping as real, is important in the marked situations. It allows to us to disagree with presented in the theory of criminal right by position, that violence is always related to overcoming of resistance of victim, id est it takes place only in the cases when pure resistance does not abandon in guilty doubts in relation to her unwillingness to enter into a sexual contact. Not taken into account thus, that a victim can lose such ability from fear, intensive negative influence on her emotionally-volitional sphere, understanding of absence of any prospect of resistance through unequal physical possibilities, in common – as a result of psychical influence. Raping, even in the cases of his spontaneous feasance, is always determined by the features of forming of personality and completed by an acceptance by her concrete decision about the choice of certain variant of behavior depending on internal (psychical or pato-psychological) processes and external circumstances (favourable or unfavorable). It is possible to distinguish the next criminally-psychological types of rapists by the nature of co-operation of external and internal terms: persons with a weak antipublic orientation – mostly commit crime in a group at presence of procatarxiss; persons from relatively by a proof antipublic orientation – commit crime in a neutral or favourable situation; persons with the expressed antipublic orientation – a situation does not play a substantial role the mechanism of criminal behaviour, she can be favourable, neutral or, even, impedimental. In plane victim it is possible to distinguish the next typical situations of feasance of raping: 1) situations in that behavior of victims had provoking character, that showed up in setting of contact with unknown or unfamiliar people, visit of their accommodation or solitude with them in uninhabited places, general use of alcoholic drinks, demonstrations of favourable attitude toward possible sexual rapprochement; 2) situations in that behavior of victims creates possibility of feasance of raping objectively; 3) situations in that behavior of victims was positive or neutral. Interrogation of victim from raping of person in swingeing majority of cases presents by a soba the solved by mutual agreement communicative situation, as she is interested in a collaboration with law enforcement authorities. Interrogation suspected a priori it belong to the conflict situations, that is why the choice of tactics of commonunication needs the obligatory finding out of row of circumstances and application of corresponding methods of psychological influence. A psychological help to the victims of sexual violence must be given after next directions: 1) maintenance of self-appraisal – co-operating with a psychologist must assert a victim in a mind, that him, as well as before, valued and respect; 2) informative support is informing of possible alternatives, advices in making decision and aspiration of actions; 3) motivational support is strengthening of positive motives; 4) instrumental support is a grant of possible help; 5) emotional support is establishment and maintenance of psychological contact at an address to law enforcement authorities and realization of medical inspection.
Appears in Collections:19.00.06 – юридична психологія

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