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Title: Філософсько-правові основи давньогрецького правосуддя. Philosophical and Legal Basics of the Ancient Greek Justice.
metadata.local.udk: 340.12
metadata.local.vid: Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня доктора філософії та доктора наук, автореферати дисертацій.
metadata.local.special: 12.00.12 – філософія права
Authors: Мамчин, Петро Ігорович
Mamchyn, P. I.
Keywords: філософія права;правосуддя;держава;справедливість;соціальне буття;соціальна рівновага;Афінська держава;Спарта;Сократ;Платон;Арістотель;права людини;судова система України;Philosophy of Law;justice;state;social being;social balance;Athenian State;Sparta;Socrates;Plato;Aristotle;human rights;judicial system of Ukraine
Issue Date: Aug-2021
Abstract: Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня кандидата юридичних наук за спеціальністю 12.00.12 – філософія права. – Національна академія внутрішніх справ, Київ, 2021. У дисертації зазначається, що система правосуддя Давньої Греції досить якісно та суттєво відрізнялася від аналогічних систем Давнього Єгипту та Вавилону. Проаналізовано особливості давньогрецької філософсько-правової традиції у сфері судочинства часів ахейського та дорійського періодів. Розглянуто судову систему Афін, ідеологію правосуддя у Спарті. Підкреслюється, що Сократом залишено поза увагою психологічний аспект діяльності суду. Указується на те, що на переконання Платона суддя мусить володіти не лише широкими повноваженнями, але й необхідними особистими якостями морально-етичного характеру. Зазначається, що Арістотель робив наголос на тому, що правосуддя (правосудність) покликане визначити і встановити загально-соціальні, спільні джерела й основи справедливості. У свою чергу Епікуром феномен правосуддя сприймався у якості неприродного явища. Стоїки перебували на жорстких позиціях щодо проблематики злочину та покарання. Натомість скептики, не сформулювали логічно виваженого та всезагального поняття справедливості. Указується на те, що у Конституції України знайшли власне відображення основоположні принципи діяльності судової системи, розроблені ще за часів Давньої Греції. The dissertation for the scientific degree of Candidate of Science of Law on specialty 12.00.12 – philosophy of law. – The National Academy of Internal Affairs, Kyiv, 2021. The paper under studies is a complex research of the phenomenon of philosophical and legal basics of the Ancient Greek justice. Despite the fact that today the issue under discussion is acquiring more and more significance, it has been insufficiently investigated in the works by Ukrainian and foreign scholars, particularly in theoretical and practical aspects. Consequently, it is subject to actualization and requires a thorough comprehensive analysis. The thesis points out that the system of justice in Ancient Greece was significantly different from the similar systems of ancient Egypt and Babylon. These differences are caused by the higher onto-axiological development of the justice system that existed in Ancient Greece. The Ancient Greek philosophical and legal tradition in the field of justice of the Achaean and Dorian periods is the result of the synthesis of a large number of components that are an integral attribute of any society. The judicial system of Athens contained the elements of direct democracy, which indicates a high degree of development of state democratic institutions. The jurisdiction of the court included the right to authorize the review of decisions of the National Assembly for their compliance with the principles of the state system of Athens, thus creating an analogue of the modern constitutional court. The very principles of the highest judicial body in Athens can be regarded as one of the means of combating corruption. In addition, this body also acted as an appellate court. It is pointed out that the ideology of justice in Sparta, on the one hand, stipulated a tendency to judicial arbitrariness and, at the same time, contained certain reliable legal mechanisms to ensure or minimize its spread in the state. On the other hand, the military organization of Sparta did not synthesize favorable foundations for the intellectual development of society, let alone its creative enrichment and social culture. It has been ascertained in the paper that Socrates quite carefully and thoroughly developed the logical and axiological content of such philosophical and legal categories as wisdom, justice and charity, with a direct projection of these phenomena on the sphere of social life. The thinker emphasized that the law is the axiological absolute that lays foundation for constructing the ontological essence of society on the whole, and the individual in particular. Nevertheless, philosopher ignored the psychological aspect of the court, which resulted in the death sentence against Socrates himself. Socrates has indirectly acknowledged that the psychological aspect of the court plays a very significant and sometimes fatal role. In his turn, Plato sought to draw a parallel between the divine origins of the laws and called particular attention to the existence of a divine component in the administration of justice. Apart from that, he was convinced that any judge could decide on a case and eventually achieve a wide variety of results, which would prove his level of professionalism and adherence to the postulates of justice. According to the philosopher, the judge must possess not only broad powers, but also the necessary personal qualities of moral and ethical nature. Besides, Aristotle outlined that justice is nothing but an expression of beauty, its material manifestation. Therefore, any judicial decision is designed to identify and determine such universal social, common sources and basics of justice that are understandable and acceptable to the majority of society. The philosopher also made a peculiar reservation in regard to the following: what is legal is fair (just) only if there is a certain subjective recognition of it, that is, legal only in a subjective and not an objective sense. As to Epicurus, he perceived justice as an unnatural phenomenon created by the state in order to serve its own interests, as well as to endow it with a certain amount of punitive functions. The representatives of the philosophical school of Stoicism kept to a rigid stance on the problem of crime and punishment, which was clearly explained by their understanding of the very phenomenon of human duty, the latter’s essence lying in the fact that the individual should live up to all his obligations. Instead, the ideology inherent in skepticism was not able to articulate a logically balanced and universal notion of justice. It is essential that the basic principles of the judicial system of the state, developed by Ancient Greek philosophers and tested in the Athenian state, have not lost their relevance so far and today continue to act as the basis of the judicial systems of most countries and international courts. The Constitution of Ukraine reflects the fundamental principles of the judicial system, developed in the days of Ancient Greece, as well: the equality of all participants in the judicial process before the law and the court; adversarial nature of the parties and their freedom to present their evidence to the court and to prove their persuasiveness before the court; providing the accused with the right to defense; publicity of the trial; binding nature of the court decision and the possibility of a collegial hearing of the case, or a trial by a jury.
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